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All Posts By

Michael Ray

Shoulder, Part IV: The Rotator Cuff Teardown

By | Training | No Comments

Reviewed & Edited by Austin Baraki, MD Introduction The “rotator cuff” is a set of four muscles around the glenohumeral joint including the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor (see figure). These muscles all originate from the scapula, insert at various points on the humerus, and serve multiple coordinated functions including abduction, adduction internal rotation, external rotation, and stabilization. Each muscle is considered to have its own unique action on scapulohumeral movement (sometimes described as scapulohumeral rhythm, as discussed in the first installment of the shoulder series here). Unfortunately, the cuff muscles are often viewed as both the source and…

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The Shoulder, Part III: Internal Impingement

By | Training | No Comments

by Dr. Michael Ray and Dr. Austin Baraki In part 2 of our shoulder series we discussed the topic of “shoulder impingement”, which is commonly understood as the mechanical compression of the tissues beneath the acromion process, resulting in pain or dysfunction — better known as external impingement. We described the biomechanical theory behind this diagnosis, and examined the available research evidence on the topic. Ultimately, we found a lack of compelling evidence — and in fact, a substantial amount of contradictory evidence — for our historical mechanically-focused understanding of this topic. Another lesser-known type of impingement, known as “internal” impingement,…

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Mobility Explained

By | Mobility | 15 Comments

Rolling through Instagram or Facebook, we find narratives and interventions claiming to improve something called “mobility”. We can select from options including stretching, foam rolling / body tempering, lacrosse ball smashing, voodoo flossing, power tools converted to guns being sold as therapeutic, and the list goes on. The level of marketing would make even Donald Draper of Mad Men proud. But are these implements doing what we think they are? Are we just hidden pliable versions of Gumby walking around, waiting for our supple potential to be released? Or, are we committing the post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy? Before…

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